Fair trade practice reviews
You are currently accessing Global Competition Review via your firmwide account. If you would like to login via a personal account, please use the link below. Amid internal and external economic uncertainty, the Korean government is committed to revitalising the economy and enhancing consumer welfare.
The KFTC has been making every endeavour to establish a principled market economy, and based on this, achieve concrete and tangible results that will actually affect people in Under this policy goal, in the KFTC focused on: Inthe KFTC prohibited and imposed measures on anti-competitive merger transactions in order to deter the creation of monopolistic market structures. Moreover, as for the merger deals of multinational companies in Korea, the KFTC also imposed measures on them to sell off their assets in order to protect competition in the domestic market.
After reviewing the merger deal in the animal health business between Boehringer Ingelheim International and Sanofi, it decided that the transaction could restrict competition and intensify monopoly or oligopoly in the vaccine and pharmaceutical market. Based on this judgment, the KFTC imposed remedies on one company to sell off its assets and allow the buyer to be licensed with the intellectual property rights.
The KFTC also sent an examination report that specifies the merger between Lam Research and KLA-Tencor, the semiconductor fabrication equipment makers, can significantly hinder competition in the fair trade practice reviews fabrication equipment market.
From January to November, remedies have been imposed on a total fair trade practice reviews 37 cartel cases, with penalty surcharges amounting to approximately billion won.
One of the major cases was a cartel in the paper industry. The KFTC has detected fair trade practice reviews practices that have been going on for years, at all levels from the purchase of raw materials and manufacturing process to the sale of the finished goods.
A fair trade practice reviews of 45 companies involved in five cartel cases have been imposed with remedies and fined approximately billion won. Fair trade practice reviews is all the more meaningful in that the KFTC revealed harmful consequences of cartels by detecting cartels for which the consumers are unaware of their impacts, even when those cartels fair trade practice reviews the price of the finished goods, such as parcel boxes, snacks and cosmetics fair trade practice reviews. Furthermore, the KFTC detected international cartels in the auto parts bids such as compressors and starter motors, and imposed remedies and fines of around Other cartel cases that have been detected and rectified include public-sector bid riggings, such as LNG container tank bid rigging and non-destructive testing service bid rigging, and FX swaps conspiracy by foreign banks.
In addition, along with the effort to enhance its cartel enforcement, the KFTC is stepping up its institutional efforts to preemptively prevent and detect cartels. A consultative body fair trade practice reviews fighting bid rigging has been founded with major bidding institutions such as Public Procurement Service and Korea Electric Power Corporation, so as to monitor bid riggings by sharing information such as imposed measures by the KFTC, and examples of monitoring and preventing cartels.
The KFTC has been pursuing the improvement of unfair trading practices of public enterprises in public sectors having a large impact on private sectors to establish fair trading practices.
The definition of standard essential patent SEP has been altered to make the regulations against SEPs more reasonable, so as to promote a fair exertion of patent rights by innovative companies. Before the revision, the definition of SEP included de facto SEPs, which became an industry standard as a result of the fierce market competition. Thus, the revised guidelines stipulate that only the patents selected by SSOs shall be regulated as SEP, and de facto SEPs to be regulated in the same manner as general patents.
This year marked the ninth anniversary of the forum, which invited various experts from major competition authorities, the OECD, academia and legal circles, etc. They participated as speakers and discussed new markets and new types of transactions, such as aftermarket, MFN clauses on online platforms and information exchanges among rivals.
It was a good opportunity to go through and deliberate on competition law issues that have been newly emerging in fair trade practice reviews changing era. Markets are moving alive and the breadth and patterns fair trade practice reviews that movement will only grow and be diversified with the arrival of the digital economy era. Accordingly, the challenges that the antitrust enforcers will encounter will get fiercer. The KFTC will continue to intensely ponder over such challenge, and will continuously strive to serve its duty as the enforcer of competition law.
Interested in becoming a GCR author? Please contact our co-publishing manager, Jordan Hunter. Public sector and digital market The KFTC has been pursuing the improvement of unfair trading practices of public enterprises in public sectors having a large impact on private sectors to establish fair trading practices. The Asia-Pacific Antitrust Review GB
For nearly twenty years, Fairtrade has been a fair trade practice reviews feature in the Irish development education landscape. Because its trading system pertains to tea, coffee, chocolate and other food items that we all enjoy, Fairtrade is considered to be an accessible approach to global development issues. In this article, I look at Fairtrade education opportunities in the formal sector at primary and secondary levels, based on the experiences of the Waterford One World Centre WOWC and local schools in the Waterford area.
I also describe the differences between consumer-based Fairtrade learning and critical Fairtrade learning, and explore the relationship between the two. The WOWC has utilised a variety of approaches to raise awareness, educate and promote action on Fairtrade issues in the local community. Because there was a comparatively low level of public awareness of Fairtrade at that time, we focused on providing visitors to the shop with basic information about the trading system.
This led to giving Fairtrade talks in local schools and churches, which in turn developed into providing participatory workshops on Fairtrade and related issues. We have delivered in-service training courses for teachers, developed curriculum-linked workshops for students and organised events for schools during Fairtrade Fortnight each year. Fairtrade Fortnight is an annual event where fair and ethical fair trade practice reviews practices are celebrated and promoted.
In all of our formal sector work, we seek to link Fairtrade concepts to established curricula. Primary-level Fairtrade education is also well suited to cross-curricular theme work Ruane, et al, Our workshops support curricular areas as diverse as history the origins of the chocolate fair trade practice reviews and mathematics how the profits from a chocolate bar are divided.
There are many opportunities for creativity: Fair trade practice reviews the Republic of Ireland, Senior Cycle is a non-compulsory period of education offered to students aged 15 to 18 years old who have successfully completed Junior Cycle.
The significance of Fairtrade was highlighted in the Leaving Certificate exam, which included an optional question on how it supports sustainable development SEC, To support study in this fair trade practice reviews, we provide teachers and students with resources from our lending library and information sheets about relevant websites.
Although CSPE and geography are the major areas of focus, Honan points out that there are opportunities for Fairtrade work across a wide range of second-level subjects, from agricultural science to religious education.
For example, when Waterford made its successful bid to become a Fairtrade City inseveral students who had participated in our school workshops became active and valuable members of the Fairtrade City Action Group. It is evident from the above examples that there are many opportunities to bring Fairtrade issues into primary and second-level classrooms. But it is important to identify what participants actually learn from these Fairtrade educational initiatives.
Students learn about the five goals of Fairtrade:. This learning seems to be straightforward, but it can lead into challenging territory. The Fairtrade benefits received by global Southern producers depend, of course, upon consumers in the North buying Fairtrade products. Critical Fairtrade education should address the relationship between trade and aid, and make connections between Fair trade practice reviews and major development themes such as human rights, sustainable development and gender equality.
Critical Fairtrade education is an ambitious goal, requiring substantial commitment from both educators and learners. Because the WOWC, like most development education organisations, is not part of the mainstream education system, our contact with teachers and students is often limited. To encourage genuine critical engagement within the confines of the brief time-slots typically allocated to development education is very difficult, if not impossible.
To make a start towards exploring the nature of Fairtrade learning, last year I carried out some informal research involving seven classes of TY students.
At the close of the workshop, I asked students to read four statements and to indicate which one best summed up their personal ideas about Fairtrade. After indicating their choices, students discussed the fair trade practice reviews in a plenary session. The statements, and percentage of students choosing each one, are listed in the table below:. Comments made by students who selected Statement 1 indicated that the film and workshop had made them aware of Fairtrade products, and that they planned to purchase Fairtrade goods.
No one who selected this statement mentioned broader development issues nor did they comment on the language of the statement e. The largest percentage of students 47 per cent chose Statement 2, which connects Fairtrade to empowerment and development, and an additional 12 per cent chose Statement 3, fair trade practice reviews associates Fairtrade with the concept of global interdependence.
Comments from students who chose these statements e. In two of the seven workshops, this fair trade practice reviews sparked intense discussion about how fundamental social change can, or cannot, be achieved. This project involved teachers and development education practitioners from Ireland, Scotland, Cyprus, Lithuania and Bulgaria. During a training week held in Lithuania, I was asked to facilitate Fairtrade workshops for teachers from the five participating countries.
I approached these workshops with some trepidation because I was unsure about levels of awareness and interest in Fairtrade issues in the five countries.
However, I was surprised to discover that teachers from Lithuania and Bulgaria, where virtually no Fairtrade products are available in shops, were very enthusiastic about Fairtrade activities.
This example is worth bearing in mind in relation to the many young people in Ireland, who, for whatever reason, are not able to purchase or more accurately, persuade their parents to purchase Fairtrade products. Certainly, it is vital to the Fairtrade movement that people purchase the products, but as educators, we need to highlight other strands of action as well, such as lobbying decision-makers at local, national and global levels.
However, this learning will not happen simply by handing out Fairtrade stickers and sample tea bags. Opportunities for Fairtrade education abound in established curricula, and it is fair trade practice reviews to development education practitioners to encourage critical engagement with the many complex issues surrounding Fairtrade.
I highly recommend celebrating Fairtrade Fortnight to explore the full potential of Fairtrade education. ActionAid Get Global: A skills-based approach to active global citizenship, London: A Development Education ReviewVol.
Department of Education and Science Geography: Leaving Certificate Revised Syllabus, Dublin: A Guide to Action Projects, Dublin: Development Education in the Primary Curriculum, Limerick: Skip to main content. Teaching about Fairtrade 9. Development Education in Action. Introduction For nearly twenty years, Fairtrade has been a prominent feature in the Irish development education landscape. Fairtrade education in fair trade practice reviews formal sector The WOWC has utilised a fair trade practice reviews of approaches to raise awareness, educate and promote action on Fairtrade issues in the local community.
Challenges in Fairtrade education It is evident from the above examples that there are fair trade practice reviews opportunities to bring Fairtrade issues into primary and second-level classrooms. Students learn about the five goals of Fairtrade: The statements, and percentage of students choosing each one, are listed in the table below: References ActionAid Get Global: Oxfam Making a Meal of It, Oxford: A Development Education Review, Vol.
Fairtrade is about empowering producers and their communities to make their own choices about what is important for their development. Fairtrade is about recognising that people all over the world depend upon each other in different and sometimes unequal ways.