Software design trade offs
Whether it's a project manager doing software acquisitions or an enterprise architect designing an application, in successful software development, it is important to understand the traditional trade-offs between cost, quality and time.
For those who are software design trade offs familiar with this age-old truism, the general rule for any undertaking is that one can balance any two of them only at the expense of the third. You software design trade offs to provide an Email Software design trade offs. This email address is already registered. You have exceeded the maximum character limit. Please provide a Corporate E-mail Address. By submitting your personal information, you agree that TechTarget software design trade offs its partners may contact you regarding relevant content, products and special offers.
It may seem like an obvious point, but like it or not, many successful software developers have discovered that some variation of the 2 out of 3 gambit resonates through just about everything we do. Several months ago I was asked to assist a large, billion-dollar computer provider with creating training for one of its larger clients.
A common enough request, yet in this case the corporation was attempting software design trade offs dictate cut-rate prices as well as delivery times. Again, while not too unusual, the software design trade offs and cost constraints were so draconian that anyone with any basic experience with the pick two gambit could see that the company had virtually insured that an inferior product would ultimately be created.
I, like many others, respectfully declined their terms. We simply had more profitable ways to spend our time. Not too surprisingly, six months later the panic calls began. Not only had this would-be training project enraged the larger, multi-billion dollar client, but the materials clearly demonstrated several major conceptual flaws.
Moreover, given that the majority of the developers were from cultures that traditionally do not tolerate such things, their first trainer had unfairly been thrown to the wolves. The effects of this self-imposed, tragic choice of two led to spending more money to fix the project than would have been spent if anyone had software design trade offs to price things properly the first time. Even when tasked to help, citing the project's over-promise and under-deliver problems, other industry-savvy consultants, all of whom were tired of the project manager's penny-pinching and promise-breaking, had understandably distanced themselves.
Having consulting, as well as much training experience on their topic software design trade offs jour, I was given the difficult task of having to talk around the training defects and content deficits.
While a software design trade offs will work for a sage's pay, the reverse is simply not true. The result is that, in talent as well as technology, while great values can indeed be found from time to time, such findings are rare. More often than not, one must eventually face the reality that one invariably gets no more, and certainly no less, than software design trade offs one pays for. To put the idea in a slightly different light, an excellent professional project management friend of mine once noted, "If there is money enough to do things over, why is there not enough to do things right?
It's a hard lesson to learn, but successful project managers and enterprise architects know that when it comes to software development, there are always tradeoffs to be made, and more often than not, those tradeoffs can be evaluated by choosing which of the cost, quality and time trifecta will have to suffer.
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Both the uncertainty in these requirements and the important tradeoff factors should be ascertained. Those factors which can be used to evaluate the design tradeoffs usually on a qualitative basis include:. Recommended practices for achieving reliability are given in section 4. The remainder of these features are discussed below.
Expandability measures the computer system's ability to conveniently accommodate increased requirements by higher speed or by physical expansion, without the cost of a major redesign ref.
The general procedure is to software design trade offs all the functions that foreseeably software design trade offs be demanded of software design trade offs computer system, such as by reviewing growth problems of past programs, and to establish a range of possible requirements for each of the software design trade offs, which may double the present requirement. If possible, the likelihood of these expanded requirements should also be estimated. Modularity is a desirable method software design trade offs providing software design trade offs and should be incorporated whenever feasible.
Prorgrammabilityor the ease of programming the computer, should be considered early in the design. Past experience has shown that a balance between programming simplicity and hardware complexity is essential to prevent the costs of programming from becoming overwhelming.
For example, sufficient memory capacity should be provided to accommodate program changes necessitated by increased performance or mission requirements; memory architecture should be designed to facilitate programming; and hard-wired memories should be avoided if many program changes are anticipated, because of the time and cost involved in implementing the changes.
Adequate addressing facilities without artificial boundaries and a simple subroutine linkage are recommended. Considerations of programmability should include the efficiency of the source language, of the object code, and of converting software design trade offs the source language to the object code, and the ease of using the source language and obtaining a completely coded computer program.
If the computer is to be programmed in flight, the use of a compiler should be considered. The degree of software sophistication and the availability of support software should be considered during the design.
Maintainability should not be neglected when designing the computer. Repair should be readily accomplished during ground operation, and if inflight maintenance is desired, this should be specified as a design requirement. Inflight repair or reconfiguration is closely associated with reliability and, as such, the extent of reconfiguration made possible will be dependent upon the reliability required. Malfunctions can often be detected by self-check programs; inflight repair can be effected by automatic switching, or by software design trade offs operation on manned missions.
The tradeoff should consider the use of a degraded mode of operation. Generally, the recommended prelaunch maintenance procedure is to remove bad components or subsystems from the system and replace them with backup equipment. To facilitate manual maintenance, subassemblies should be pluggable, require a minimum of disassembly for access, and be replaceable without adjustment. The design should provide case of accessibility and should minimize the possibility of damage to other parts during maintenance.
If replaced assemblies are to be discarded rather than repaired, maximum cost goals for a replaceable module should be established. Compatibility should be developed between the computer and its interfaces, software, power levels, and, where necessary, ground computers.
Standard interfaces and power levels should be implemented. Interface compatibility reduces the need for data conversion with peripheral equipment and is highly recommended. Data compatibility between models of a computer family should be provided to simplify the design of peripheral equipment. This consideration is particularly important when computers of different performance and architecture are interconnected.
Source and object code compatibility between the spaceborne and ground-based computers is advantageous to facilitate programming. Adaptability is defined as the ability of the system to meet a wide range of functional requirements without requiring physical modification. Moreover, the design should consider specific features which allow tailoring a basic machine to different situations, such as an adjustable word length through byte organized operations, alterable or unused operation codes, reserved fields within software design trade offs, and adjustable speed.
Caution must be taken that the increase in computer capabilities is in accordance with other development considerations. Availability is the probability software design trade offs the computer is operating satisfactorily at a given time.
It is closely related to reliability and repair time and should be considered in establishing reliability requirements. Since it takes into software design trade offs the time required for malfunction detection and reconfiguration or repair, availability is particularly important during time-critical mission phases.
Development Status and Cost are complex management-related factors which can have significant effects on the design. They require the estimation of a number of items such as the extent of off-the-shelf hardware use, design risks in developing new equipment using advanced technologies, potential progress in the state of the art during the design and development of software design trade offs computer, etc. In estimating cost, the manager should consider the total long-range expenditures as well as initial outlays, software design trade offs also the cost of potential delays in developing advanced techniques, etc.
In addition to the above qualitative factors, tradeoffs should be determined on the basis of specified quantitative factors, such as precision, speed, capacity, weight, volume, and power.